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Materiale ordliste

Glossary of materials

What is... - below we have a short list of some materials

Acrylic fibre, also called polyacrylonitrile, is lightweight and soft. It can withstand sunlight and most chemicals. Its durability is not quite as good as in nylon or polyester. It does not retain its shape during washing. There are many trade names for acrylic, such as for example  orlon, courtelle and dralon. Acrylic goods are very heat sensitive and can loose their shape if they are washed, dried or ironed at high temperatures. Knitted goods made with acrylic fibre yarn are bulky and can trap a lot of air, giving them good isulation properties.

Bamboo is the fastest growing plant in the world. It is robust and does not require pesticides to grow. Bamboo can grow in most places and releases large amounts of oxygen. At the same time, bamboo absorbs five times as much greenhouse gas from the atmosphere as trees. It is therefore good environmental practice to use bamboo in connection with the production of fibres.
Bamboo is extremely useful, it can be processed for use in many different articles, such as towels, bedding, socks and t-shirts. Apart from being lightweight, soft and breathable, bamboo fibre has a silky shine. Bamboo fibre is cellulose and perforated, for which reason it can absorb up to 50% more moisture than cotton - without feeling damp. Natural antibacterial elements in bamboo fibres keep them free from bacteria - even after many washes.

Canvas is strong plain-woven fabric made of cotton or linen, which is most often used for bags, shoes, combat clothing, outerwear and more.

COOLMAX® is a soft, lightweight and breathable material, which ensures that moistures is transported away from the body while also being fast-drying. Optimal comfort, as the materials provides a natural feeling of well-being. The clothing helps to regulate the body's natural temperature, whether you feel cold or warm.

CORDURA® is a very durable and hard wearing material, in which the most important substance is nylon. Cordura is 10 times stronger than cotton and 3 times stronger than ordinary polyester fibre. It is often used for reinforcement in work clothing in places where the clothing comes into contact with hands, tools or the ground.

Denim - also known as jeans fabric, is a heavy twill fabric made of cotton or cotton and polyester. (Twill is a weave type which produces a diagonal ribbing across the fabric).

Down has some qualities that make it very suitable when it comes to staying warm. Down has an unmatchable warmth-to-weight ratio. There is no other insulation material for clothing, which weighs as little as down, is just as compressible and retains heat just as well. In short, down takes up less space and weighs much less than other materials that can provide the same level of warmth.
Down is breathable, making it rather more comfortable to wear than, for example, synthetic insulation materials. Many are able to recognize the difference in comfort between a down quilt and a quilt with a synthetic filling.
The same difference can be noticed in jackets containing down and synthetic filling.
Finally, down can retain its properties over many years if cared for properly. The best and finest down can retain close to the same insulating effect for up to 40-50 years with the right care! Of course, most down jackets will not last this long, but it does mean that the down will be able to offer the same level of comfort throughout the jacket's lifetime. In contrast, synthetic filling typically falls apart and looses some of its isulating effect after several years of use.

Elastane, also known as Elité, is elastic like rubber, while being stronger and resistant to sunlight. Elastane is used for clothing such as swimwear, sportswear and more, as it provides comfortable elasticity. Elastane is a type of fibre with exceptionally good and durable elastic properties, which surpass the best rubber thread.

Elastomultiester is a polyester fiber that is added to denim in order to give it comfortable stretch, and the fabric is enable to return into the original shape.
Fuseknit technology is a method of production which provides the possibility to produce clothing with less seams. Ideal technology for producing products used in sports activities.

Gore-Tex® is a membrane which is both wind and water resistant, meaning that moisture from the body can be transported away from it. It is a membrane filled with tiny pores, each of which is 20,000 times smaller than a water droplet. The pores are small enough that water and wind cannot get through, but have exactly the size required to allow the moisture from your body to be transferred away, and will keep you can staying dry.

Flax is fibre from the stem of the flax plant. Extracting flax fibre is very laborious work, meaning flax products can be expensive. In the context of clothing, flax is mostly used in combination with other fibres, amongst other reasons due to its ability to absorb moisture. Flax is also known as linen, and is cultivated to obtain both oil from the seeds and for fibre from the stems. Flax has a high absorbency as well as a high tensile strength, and is great for usage in hand towels and tea towels. Flax is more rigid, glossy and smooth than cotton, making it naturally stain-resistant. It has the particular property of becoming soft during tumble-drying, whilst becoming stiff and shiny with the use of a cold clothes press.

Isoli is a knitted fabric with extra yarn knitted into it. This yarn lies visibly on top of  the stitches on the reverse side. It is often raised or furry on the inner or reverse side. Isoli is also known as "jogging fabric", as it is very comfortable to wear.

Lycra® is a brand name for spandex. LYCRA ® is used in many fabrics to make an item stretchable. LYCRA ® gives the product flexibility and helps item return  to its original shape after being stretched.
Lycra Dupont ® is a registered trademark of lycra.

Lyocell is a regenerated cellulose like viscose and modal, but has better strength. Lyocell fabrics are soft and provide excellent comfort due to its ability to absorb moisture, amongst other properties. Lyocell can have a tendency to fibrilate, meaning that the surface wears out quickly, and that the fabric’s dye can be weak. For the same reason, Lyocell is often manufactured with a slightly raised surface, also called the "peach-skin-effect", which gives the fabric a soft surface. Lyocell is a widely used material, which is considerably more expensive in comparison to viscose or modal.

Merino Wool derives from wool from the merino sheep. The wool is especially fine, silky, soft, stylish and expensive.

Microfibre is a synthetic fiber that is finer than 1 denier. The most common types are manufactured from polyester and polyamide and are called nylon, kevlar, nomex and trogamide. Microfibre is used in the production of unwoven, woven and knitted fabrics, and it is widely used in clothing, furniture, industrial filters and, for example, dishcloths.

Modal is from the "viscose family" and has essentially the same properties as viscose.

Neoprene is a synthetic rubber material filled with air bubbles. Neoprene is a very flexible material and the air bubbles help to give it good insulation properties. Neoprene is used in sweaters, jackets, diving suits, and more.

Nylon or polyamide surpasses all other fibrous materials both in tear and abrasion resistance. Nylon is photosensitive and turns yellow and softens in sunlight. Nylon or polyamide is a synthetic product which is use widely, mostly as it does not shrink. It is used, amongst other things, for the reinforcement of sports clothing. There are now types of nylon being produced which are resistant to light. In nylon or polyamide, crimps and pleats can endure washing. Nylon is also used in crepe yarn, which is used in socks, underwear, knitwear and other stretchy items.

Oxford is a soft and strong fabric. It has a basketweave structure, with two warp yarns interlaced with a soft additional yarn - giving more weight to the fabric. When a coloured warp yarn is interwoven with a white additional yarn, the name Oxford Chambray is used.

Polyester is a synthetic fibre very commonly used in clothing, only being surpassed by cotton. The fibre is used alone or combined with other fibres. Polyester is strong and does not wrinkle or shrink, whether it is used in combination with other fibres or alone.
Synthetic fibres like polyester are artificially manufactured fibres. They are produced from crude oil and natural gas. The most common synthetic fibres are polyamide, polyester, acrylic and elastane. Polyester fibres are the most commonly used and have high tensile strength, minimal shrinkage and low water absorption. Polyester can be produced with different surfaces, shapes and properties. It can be washed in the same high temperatures such as cotton, although it is important to take any dye in the fabric into consideration.
Polypropylene is lighter than other textile fibres. It is strong and stretchable and can withstand most chemicals, but is light and heat sensitive. Moisture can be absorbed and transferred to the outer layer, without the polypropylene fibre getting wet. It is used, among other things, for sports underwear.

Poplin is a tight, plain weave fabric with twice as many threads lengthwise as across the fabric. Poplin can consist of cotton or cotton and polyester. It is used in shirts and polo shirts.

Prolen siltex is yarn that inhibits the growth of bacteria and mould. It reduces odour and is used, for example, in stockings.

PU is also known as polyurethane. It is a synthetic material that can appear both as fibres and as a rubber coating.

PVC, or polyvinyl chloride, is a rubbery material which is less heat-sensitive than other synthetic fibers. PVC is one of the most commonly used plastic materials, and can be used in many contexts.

Polypropylene is lighter than other textile fibres. The fibre is strong and stretchy with a high resistance to chemicals. Polypropylene is light- and heat-sensitive, absorbs almost no moisture and is inexpensive to manufacture.

Polyacrylic is derived from acrylic, which is a synthetic fiber. Acrylic is not nearly as durable as polyester, although it is  light, filling and more heat-insulating.

Ripstop is a special weaving method that makes tears unable to spread. The ripstop weaving method prevents further damage to the fabric, as tears will quickly reach a woven border and will therefore not spread.

Scuba is a material similar to neoprene. It is very flexible and soft, and is therefore well-suited for dresses, blouses, sweaters, skirts and pants.

Siltex is a material that is highly antibacterial. Along with, for example, cotton, it has good temperature regulating properties. Siltex is breathable and sweat-transferring.

Skinlife is anti-bacterial and therefore widely used in products such as socks.

Slub Yarn is yarn of uneven thickness, which gives a special effect when it is knitted into jersey fabric or used to knit sweaters amongst other things.

Split leather is double-sided suede which has not been given a smooth, completed finish. The underside is the roughest. Split leather is used for belts, footwear, work gloves and clothing. Split leather is most often less expensive than normal suede.

Spandex is another word for elastane. Spandex is a polyurethane fibre with flexible properties. It is often used in fabrics for underwear, swimwear and knitwear.
In Europe, the fibre is known as "elastane", and in North America as "spandex". In the rest of the world, trade names such as lycra, elaspan and dorlastan are used.

Synthetic fibres are industrially manufactured fibres that can be divided into two types: man-made fibres and regenerated fibers. Synthetic fibre is also known as chemical fibre. Regenerated fibres are usually manufactured from cellulose derived from "cotton waste" or wood. Man-made fibres are produced on the basis of oil-based products, air and water - just like plastic. Regenerated fibres have essentially the same properties as cotton. They can absorb large amounts of moisture and are comfortable to wear in both high and low temperatures.

Dirt remains on the surface due to the fibre’s smoothness. Man-made fibres and regenerated fibres are strong both wet and dry. They barely crease and rarely absorb moisture, ensuring quick drying after usage and washing. Trade names include: acrylic, acrylonitrile, antron, bri-nylon, courtelle, dacron, diolen, spandex, elastane, lycra, nylon, orlon, herculon, polypropylene, polyamide, polyester, nylon 6, rilsan, terylene, tetoron, vyrene and others.

Clothing made from loosely spun yarn with smooth fibre ends ensure viscosity, but also means that the surface can rub off or pill. Synthetic fibres are found in everything from workwear, sportswear, t-shirts to underwear and much more.

Tencel® The raw material in Tencel® is Lyocell, which is made up of 100% cellulose. Tencel® is a fibre that comes from nature, but is artificially manufactured. It is in particular the eucalyptus tree which constitutes the basis for the production of Tencel® fibre.

Twill is a weaving method that creates a diagonal pattern in the fabric. Fabrics woven using this method are generally more soft and has low shrinkage.

T400® is an elastic fibre which has the amazing ability to pull fabric back into its original shape. Clothing made with T400® has high comfort and elasticity -without any elastic fibres being added. In addition, T400® can transfer moisture and keep its shape well.

Viscose, also known as rayon, is a regenerated fibre*, made from degraded and chemically treated wood. Viscose is called a synthetic fibre, in spite of the fact that it is based on a natural material. It was originally produced in an attempt to make silk cheaper and more accessible. The raw materials are quite cheap, most often they come from pine, eucalyptus, bamboo or the cotton plant.
Viscose can be glossy and consist of infinitely long fibres that resemble silk, or of short, matte fibres that look and behave more like cotton and wool.

Wool comes from sheep and most often consists of fine, thin fibres. Below you can see the different kinds of wool.

●      Merino wool is very soft.
●      Heavier wool such as crossbred is less expensive than merino and has a  higher abrasion resistance, whilst also being more sturdier when worn and washed.
●      Alpaca wool from the alpaca llama is soft and shiny.
●      Pashmina is another term for cashmere wool, and has extra fine, thin and soft fibres from the ventral side of the cashmere goat.
●      Angora wool from angora rabbits is a fine and soft fibre, just like camelhair.
●      Mohair wool, from the angora goat, is long-fibred, coarse, soft and lustrous.
●      Shetland wool is fine and soft.
●      Lambswool is usually soft.

Wool is very well suited for clothing. If it is combined with synthetic material, it has excellent properties such as a thermal effect, washability and durability.

*Regenerated fibres such as viscose and rayon are derived from cellulose from trees. With chemicals, the cellulose is transformed into a mass of viscose that is regenerated or rebuilt into fibres.
Viscose, rayon, cupro, modal, lyocell and more belong in the category of regenerated fibres. Avril, arnel, bemberg, cupro, lyocell, modal, cupresa, dicel, polynosic, rayon, rhodia, sarille, swelan, triacetate, tricel and tencel fall under the cellulose fibres acetate and triacetate. Viscose is the most widely used of the regenerated fibres.